Epipactis atrorubens (O. Hoffman) Bess.

Dark Red Helleborine

Facts About

Accepted Synonyms: Epipactis danubialis, Epipactis spiridonovii

Epipactis atrorubens, the Dark Red Helleborine, is native to Europe and Asia, extending from Norway in the north to mountain regions in Spain in the south and which reportedly has naturalized in Vermont. This orchid has 5-10 deeply veined leaves and thin hairs cover the stem. The loose raceme consists of several flowers, usually a dark wine red but occasionally rose colored or greenish. The lightly veined labellum is divided into two parts: the innermost part is concave, forming a small pouch-like bowl, greenish with red edges, and spotted with red or brown. The outer part is triangular and more brightly colored. This orchid favors warm, dry locations, and was discovered in Vermont in an abandoned quarry on serpentine bedrock.

The conservation status for Epipactis atrorubens has not been reported but populations in the United Kingdom are declining and this species is becoming scarce in some parts of its range.

Ecosystem Type

Disturbed habitats, forests, ridges or ledges


Leaf arrangement:
Number of leaves on stem:
  • five
  • six
  • seven or more
Form of the labellum:
the labellum is pouch-like
Labellum outline:
the labellum is lobed
Main color of labellum:
  • green to brown
  • pink to red
Nectar spur:
Inflorescence type:
the inflorescence is a raceme
Labellum characteristics:
  • the labellum is lobed
  • the labellum is saccate
Labellum length:
5.5–6.5 mm
Sepal length:
6–7 mm
Plant height:
20–60 cm
Show All Characteristics

Native to North America


North American Conservation Status & Distribution

Conservation Status

Select a location to view conservation status:

Conservation and Wetland Status
Global Rank N/A
US Status N/A
Canadian Status N/A

North America Distribution

Adapted from USDA data