Galearis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) R.M. Bateman

Fly Speckled Orchid, One Leaf Orchid, Roundleaf Orchid

Facts About

Accepted Synonyms: Amerorchis rotundifolia, Orchis rotundifolia, Platanthera rotundifolia

Galearis rotundifolia, commonly called Roundleaf Orchid, is found across Canada to Alaska and in northern U.S. states from Maine to Wyoming. The name "rotundifolia" refers to this plant's solitary, rounded basal leaf which is present at the time of flowering in the summer, when up to 17 small, white to pale pink flowers are produced, often with mauve spots on the lobed labellum. It is generally found near northern white cedars and in high-pH swamps and fens.

Although Galearis rotundifolia is considered globally secure, it is rare throughout much of the United States, with only one eastern state possessing an extant population (Maine). In all other eastern states, this orchid is considered historical or extirpated.


The scentless flower of this orchid relies on food deception with its nectar-free spur to attract pollinators such as the mason bee Osmia proxima and hoverflies, such as Eriozona laxus, Eristalis hirta, Eristalis rupium and Eupeodes lapponicus. The pollinating bee or fly lands on the lip and probes the spur which is approximately the same length or longer than the insect's tongue. In the process of pushing into the flower and backing out, the sticky pollen attaches to the front of the insect’s head and is carried off to the next flower it visits.

Ecosystem Type

Bogs, fens, floodplains, forests, stream bank, swamps, tundra, woodlands


Leaf arrangement:
Number of leaves on stem:
Form of the labellum:
the labellum is not pouch-like
Labellum outline:
the labellum is lobed
Main color of labellum:
  • pink to red
  • white
Nectar spur:
Inflorescence type:
the inflorescence is a raceme
Labellum characteristics:
  • the labellum has a spur
  • the labellum is lobed
Labellum length:
6–10 mm
Sepal length:
6–10 mm
Plant height:
7–36 cm
Show All Characteristics

Native to North America


North American Conservation Status & Distribution

Conservation Status

Select a location to view conservation status:

Conservation and Wetland Status
Global Rank Secure
US Status N/A
Canadian Status Secure

North America Distribution

Adapted from USDA data